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  • 土库曼马 ,或Turkmene,是一个从中亚草原的东方马品种,现在已经灭绝。 Modern descendants include the Akhal-Teke and the Yamud horse breeds.现代后裔包括阿克哈-塔克马Yamud马品种。 Horses bred in Turkmenistan are still referred to as Turkoman, and have similar characteristics.在土库曼斯​​坦培育的马匹仍然简称为土库曼人,也有类似的特点。 They have influenced many other horse breeds, including the Thoroughbred horse.他们影响了许多其他的马品种, 包括纯血马

    An Akhal-Teke horse. 阿克哈-塔克马的马。 The breed is very similar to the now-extinct Turkoman Horse .品种是非常相似,现已灭绝的土库曼马。 Some historians believe that the two are different strains of the same breed.一些历史学家认为,这两个是同一品种的不同菌株。
    The Byerley Turk , one of the progenitors of the Thoroughbred breed, may have been a Turkoman horse Byerley土耳其人纯种繁殖的祖先之一,一直是土库曼马

    The Turkoman horse , or Turkmene, was an Oriental horse breed from the steppes of Central Asia, now extinct. 土库曼马 ,或Turkmene,是一个从中亚草原的东方马品种,现在已经灭绝。 Modern descendants include the Akhal-Teke and the Yamud horse breeds.现代后裔包括阿克哈-塔克马Yamud马品种。 Horses bred in Turkmenistan are still referred to as Turkoman, and have similar characteristics.在土库曼斯​​坦培育的马匹仍然简称为土库曼人,也有类似的特点。 They have influenced many other horse breeds, including the Thoroughbred horse.他们影响了许多其他的马品种, 包括纯血马。

     特性

    The Turkoman horse was noted for its endurance.土库曼马注意到它的耐力。 It had a slender body, similar to a greyhound .它有一个修长的身材,类似一个灰狗 Although refined in appearance, the breed was actually one of the toughest in the world.虽然在外观精致,品种实际上是一个在世界上最棘手的。 They had a straight profile, long neck, and sloping shoulders.他们有一条直线轮廓,长长的脖子,和倾斜的肩胛。 Their back was long, with sloping quarters and tucked-up abdomen.背长,倾斜季度和上提的腹部。 They had long and muscular legs.他们长,肌肉发达的腿。 The horses ranged from 15-16 hh.马介于15-16 HH。

    The coat of a Turkomen horse could been of any color, and usually possessed a metallic glow.一个土库曼马的大衣可以被任何颜色,通常具有金属光泽。 This is due to a change in the structure of the individual hair.这是由于个人的头发结构的变化。 Many theories have been formulated to explain why hair of the Turkomen and its descendants shines, but none explain why the Turkoman horses in particular benefitted from this genetic difference and why other horses would not.制订了许多理论来解释为什么头发土库曼人和其后代闪耀,但没有解释为什么特别是土库曼马受惠于这种遗传差异,为什么其他的马不会。

    土库曼和阿拉伯相比

    A modern Arabian horse一个现代化的阿拉伯马


    Though both the Arabian horse and the Turkoman may have had a common ancestor in the oriental horse prototype, in their purest old forms they were very like one another in some ways and very different in others. 阿拉伯马和土库曼虽然可能有一个共同的祖先在东方马的原型,在其最纯粹的老形式,他们非常喜欢在某些方面和在其他国家非常不同。 Both had excellent speed and stamina.双方有出色的速度和耐力。 Both had extremely fine coats and delicate skin, unlike many horse breeds found in Europe.两者有极其精细的涂层和娇嫩的皮肤,不像许多马在欧洲发现的品种。 They both had large eyes, wide foreheads and tapering muzzles.他们俩的大眼睛,宽阔的前额和尖细枪口。 They both came from very arid environments.他们都来自非常干旱的环境。 Here, however, the similarities between the Turkoman of Central Asia and the Arabians of the Nejd desert lands of Central Arabia end, and the horses begin to diverge to suit their environments and the fighting styles of their breeders.在这里,但是中亚的土库曼人之间的相似之处和阿拉伯人 Nejd中央阿拉伯年底的沙漠土地,和马开始出现分歧,以适应自己的环境和其育种的战斗风格。 Some divergence may be attributable solely to natural selection of landrace traits, other differences may be attributable to selective breeding .一些分歧可能是纯粹的地方品种特征的自然选择,其他方面的差异可能是由于选择性育种。 The Turkoman had small hooves.土库曼小蹄。 This was an adaptation to the steppes of the Central Asia, which largely consisted of a hard, rocky ground, covered with coarse sand, more like fine gravel and of stiff, parched vegetation.这是一种适应中亚的大草原,这在很大程度上是一种坚硬,岩石地面布满粗砂,更像细砾和僵硬,口干舌燥植被,包括。 The Arabian had fairly large hooves for its size.阿拉伯其规模已相当大的马蹄。 In the Central Arabian desert there is deep sand as well as hard terrain.在中央的阿拉伯沙漠中,有深沙以及硬地形。 A larger hoof is needed here to cope with this type of terrain.这里需要一个更大的蹄,以应付这种类型的地形。

    The back of the Turkoman, the Tekke Turkoman, and today in many cases, the Akhal-Teke, is much longer than that of the Arabian.土库曼,Tekke土库曼,今天在许多情况下,阿克哈 - 塔克马,背面是远远长于阿拉伯。 The reason for this may likely to be that when riding long distances, the Turkoman was expected to trot , and the Arabian was not; the Bedouin tended to ride camels over long distances, leading their war horses, saving them for raiding, which was primarily done at the gallop .这样做的原因,可能是长距离骑行时,在土库曼预计小跑 ,和阿拉伯没有,往往长距离乘坐骆驼贝都因人 ,导致他们的战马,节约他们的执法人员,这主要是做的驰骋

    The Turkoman was taller than the desertbred Arabian and had a sparse mane .土库曼是身高比desertbred阿拉伯和稀疏鬃毛。 The Arabian carries its tail high when galloping, and higher than most when walking or trotting.阿拉伯进行了它的尾巴高,奔腾,比大多数人行走时或小跑。 The Turkoman runs with its tail streaming behind.土库曼运行它的尾巴流背后。

    The Turkoman horse is narrower in the body than the Arabian, or indeed than any other breed of horse.土库曼马窄比阿拉伯海,或在体内确实比任何其他品种的马。 This helps it to dissipate heat quickly, but it is also a great aid in twisting and turning in the saddle, which would be invaluable to mounted archers who need to shoot in any direction, as opposed to lancers who need a firm footing from which to thrust a lance.这可以帮助它散热快,但它也是一个很大的帮助在马鞍上,这将是非常宝贵的安装弓箭手需要在任何方向拍摄的,而不是枪骑兵需要站稳了脚跟,从中的扭曲和转向推力长矛。 Lance-throwing from horseback would be far easier on an Arabian horse shaped wider in the body would also help with making the sharp turns that close-fighting requires. [ citation needed ]从马背上投掷长矛,将容易在体内形成更广泛的阿拉伯马,也将有助于急转弯,近距离的战斗需要。[需要引证]

    In other words, the Turkoman was the ideal horse for the Turkmen, and the Arabian was the ideal horse for the Bedouin.换句话说,土库曼土库曼的理想马,和阿拉伯的贝都因人的理想马

     

    特性

    The Turkoman horse was noted for its endurance.土库曼马注意到它的耐力。 It had a slender body, similar to a greyhound .它有一个修长的身材,类似一个灰狗 Although refined in appearance, the breed was actually one of the toughest in the world.虽然在外观精致,品种实际上是一个在世界上最棘手的。 They had a straight profile, long neck, and sloping shoulders.他们有一条直线轮廓,长长的脖子,和倾斜的肩胛。 Their back was long, with sloping quarters and tucked-up abdomen.背长,倾斜季度和上提的腹部。 They had long and muscular legs.他们长,肌肉发达的腿。 The horses ranged from 15-16 hh.马介于15-16 HH。

    The coat of a Turkomen horse could been of any color, and usually possessed a metallic glow.一个土库曼马的大衣可以被任何颜色,通常具有金属光泽。 This is due to a change in the structure of the individual hair.这是由于个人的头发结构的变化。 Many theories have been formulated to explain why hair of the Turkomen and its descendants shines, but none explain why the Turkoman horses in particular benefitted from this genetic difference and why other horses would not.制订了许多理论来解释为什么头发土库曼人和其后代闪耀,但没有解释为什么特别是土库曼马受惠于这种遗传差异,为什么其他的马不会。

    土库曼马,除了国家偶尔礼品,往往被带进西欧不同的个人,大多以某种方式与军事有关的。 Some of these horses have had a profound impact on various European warmblood breeds.这些马有过欧洲各warmblood品种产生深远的影响。

    During the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, one of the most universally acclaimed war and racing horses in Europe was the Neapolitan Courser .在中世纪晚期和文艺复兴时期,最有口皆碑的战争和在欧洲的赛车马匹之一,是那不勒斯的骏马。 Though much heavier than the Turkoman horse, it may have had some Turkoman ancestry. Gervaise Markham , Master of Horse to James I of England , describes the Neapolitan horses in terms which will sound very familiar to the fancier of the Turanian horses:虽然比土库曼马重得多,它可能有一些土库曼人的祖先。 Gervaise的Markham詹姆斯一世 ,马师傅介绍那不勒斯马条款将声音非常熟悉的票友Turanian马:

    马一个强大和清秀的时尚,爱好处置,和无限courageousness的,他的四肢和一般特点是如此强大和严密的,他曾经被誉为为战争的唯一的野兽,自然地从恐惧或胆怯他的头长,瘦肉和很修长;和不从眼睛鼻子像一个鹰的嘴弯曲他一个伟大的眼睛,一个尖锐的耳朵,一个直腿,一个过度好奇的眼睛可能会出现太多。修长的 - 这是所有故障的好奇心本身并找到它们是自然的一个崇高的步伐,热爱自己的车手,在他们的运动最强烈的,并得出结论,因为在所有点的好,没有外国的比赛曾经承担了什一税这么多优秀。“

    Markham preferred the English Thoroughbred first among all breeds of horses; the Neapolitan second, and the steppe-bred Turk third.马卡姆首选的英国纯种马之间的所有品种之首;那不勒斯第二,和草原孕育的土耳其人第三。 He had seen Turks racing on English race courses, circa 1566-1625.他看到土耳其人的英语种族课程,大约在1566至1625年的赛车。 He also noted that the Turks he had seen were: "Naturally in they desire to amble , and, which is most strange, their trot is full of pride and gracefulness."他还指出,他看到土耳其人是:“当然,在他们的愿望, 缓行,而且,这是最奇怪的,他们一路小跑是充满了自豪感和优美